Handouts & Answers

This page shows all class handouts and answers from Class #1 and Class # 2 - PLUS all the answers from the quiz sections of the textbook for Classes #3 through #6.  Keep scrolling down until you see the material for the class in which you are interested.

Working with your TABLE GROUP – find the following locations on your “Western Long Island Sound” Chart

1.  Try to find the following landmarks and aids in our local area:

            Flagpole at Long Neck Point
            Buoy G”1”  Fl G    West of Long Neck Point, entrance to Darien Harbor
            Buoy G”1” Fl G 2.5s GONG East of Little Captain Island (Greenwich)
            Five Mile River
            Green’s Ledge Light(house)
            Sheffield Island
            The Norwalk Channel
            The Stack at Manresa Island (Power Company Stack)
            Peck Ledge
            Cable and Anchor Reef
            Smith Reef
            Holly Pond
            Shippan Point (Stamford)
            R”32” (South of The Cows)

2.  Across the Sound - be sure you can find:
            Oyster Bay Harbor
            Cold Spring Harbor
            The Sand Hole at Lloyd Point
            Huntington Bay
            Huntington Bay -  R “8” at Target Rock
            Eatons Neck Point
            The Coast Guard Station at Eatons Neck (CG 144ft 17M HORN)
            Buoy G”1” Fl G 2.5s that is west of Eatons Neck
            Northport Bay
            Crane Neck
            Old Field Point
            Port Jefferson

3.  Find the distance scale that shows NAUTICAL MILES
(This chart doesn’t have a printed scale – it is approximately 1: 80:000, a “small scale” chart)

4.  The depths are shown in what units?     Meters?    Feet?     Fathoms?    How do you know?

5.  At what depth does the color change from blue to white on the main chart? 
On the detailed (“large scale”) charts on the back ?    Is this a CONTOUR LINE ? 

6.  Are there other contour lines on the main chart?  What contour depths do they show?

7.  Point out some Obstructions and Wrecks – at what depth are they? 
Would they be important in a boat that draws 4 feet?   



With reference to your chart: “Western Long Island Sound:”

1.  Is the depth shown in Feet, Meters, or Fathoms?                         __________
Is this depth number determined from High Tide or Low Tide?    __________

2.  What is the clearance of the railroad bridge over the Norwalk River at the North end of the Norwalk Harbor, shown on INSET "D" on the back of the main chart as:
          Bascule Bridge HOR CL 100 FT, VERT CL ?? FT    __________
Is this measurement for clearance at High Tide or Low Tide?     __________

3.  Find the Compass Rose that is printed in Mid-Sound on your chart.
Note the Variation, its date and the rate of change.    Recognizing that our chart work will be conducted using whole degrees (i.e. rounding off the minutes to a whole degree), please indicate the value for Variation that you will use for this year’s chart work.
                    Is it    12°W     13°W     14°W   or     15°W  ?                        __________°W




  answers are posted on web at

Plotting a Course - & the 60 D = ST Formula

Plot these courses on your chart, and determine the MAGNETIC course to the goal,
And the RECIPROCAL COURSE – the course back home again.

                                                                                                MAGNETIC                          RECIPROCAL  
                                                                                                                                                (also Magnetic)

1.  Darien’s G”1” to G”1” Fl G 2.5 sec at Eatons’ Neck      _________°                      __________°
What is the distance of this course?        _______nm

At 6 knots, how long will it take to get there?    ___________

2.  Darien’s G”1” to G”15”  GONG,  North of Lloyd Point  _________°                      __________°

What is the distance of this course?        _______nm

If you got there in 20 minutes, how fast were you going?  ___________                                               

3.  Smith Reef R”30” to Stamford’s R “32” at The Cows    _________°                      __________° 

What is the distance of this course?        _______nm

You leave at  0945 and travel at 4 knots.    What time do you expect to arrive?  ___________


CLASS # 1    IN-CLASS   EXERCISE # 1 and # 2          AND  EXERCISE #3  -  HOMEWORK

4. Feet
5. 20’ in the main chart.  On the detailed charts on the back:  it varies.  10’ on Port Jeff chart, 6’ on the Northport chart – so be careful as to what each chart shows.
6. Yes, 30’ 60’
7. Wrecks South-West of Darien’s Long Neck Point, and South of Greenwich.  No.


1. Feet   Low Tide    (Mean Lower Low Water MLLW – to be exact)
2. 8 feet     High Tide   (Mean High Water MHW – to be exact)
3. Variation (to the nearest DEGREE) in 2016 is 13.    (in 7/16 it was 13° 21’ W,    rounds DOWN to  13 degrees

CLASS 1 – EXERCISE # 3 + HOMEWORK (change in Variation updated to 13W on 3/8/18)
1. 161 degrees Magnetic    the Reciprocal is   341 degrees Magnetic   distance =  6.5 NM
It will take  65 minutes to get there at 6 kts.       60 d = ST      60x6.5 or 930 / 6 = 65 minutes

2. 196 degrees Magnetic    the Reciprocal is   016 degrees Magnetic   distance =  4.6 NM
You were going 13.8 call it 14 knots       60 d = ST    60x 4.6 or  276 / 20 = 13.8 or 14 knots

3. 242 degrees Magnetic    the Reciprocal is   062 degrees Magnetic   distance =  2.0 NM
You will arrive at 1015        60 d = ST   60 x 2 = 120     120 / 4 =  30 minutes + 0945 = 1015

All answers are  posted on the web – via a click off of the Squadron’s home page:

Here are the In-Class Exercises as well as the Homework.   
Answers are at the end of this posting - just scroll down to see them.   
Please check your answers before coming to class.
Let the instructor know if you have any problems or "issues" with either the Exercises or the Homework 

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There are two things you need to be able to do with your chart:
-         when someone gives you a location in Latitude and Longitude, you need to know just where that is, on the chart, and

-         when you need to tell someone where you are, you need to be able to give them the Latitude and Longitude coordinates of your location.

The next two exercises will give you confidence that you can easily do these tasks.

First – lets say that you are near Greens Ledge Light – off of the Five Mile River, and you hear the Coast Guard broadcast a notice that a ship is in trouble at the following location(s).  Find these locations and note how far you are away from these ships:

Latitude                                                    Longitude                                    Miles away

41 degrees, 00.6 minutes North     073 degrees  25.2 minutes West     _____

40 degrees, 57.7 minutes North     073 degrees  29.2 minutes West     _____

41 degrees, 00.2 minutes North     073 degrees  31.4 minutes West     _____

Next – you have left Greens Ledge Light behind you, and you have traveled to some interesting points.    What are your Lat/Long values when you are at:

Bell Buoy R”2” south of Stratford Shoal Middle Ground?
          ____ deg ___.__ minutes North      ____deg  ___.__ minutes West

Bell Buoy R”42” off of the entrance to Mamaroneck Harbor?
          ____ deg ___.__ minutes North      ____deg  ___.__ minutes West

Whistle Buoy RW “BH” at the entrance to Bridgeport Harbor?
          ____ deg ___.__ minutes North      ____deg  ___.__ minutes West

CLASS 2 - EXERCISE   # 2 – start in class – finish as homework

1.  Re-measure the distance from:
              Darien’s G”1” to G”1” Fl G 2.5 sec at Eatons’ Neck                   _________NM

2.  Assuming the breeze is fair and you are in a sail boat that will move along at 5.0 knots, use the formula  60 D Street  (60*D=S*T) to determine the number of minutes it will take to make this trip: 
Darien’s G”1” to G”1” Fl G 2.5 sec at Eatons’ Neck         _________Minutes @ 5.0 kts.

3.  In fairness to the non-sailors, lets assume that you are able to get up on a plane and travel along at 18.5 knots in your runabout.  Use the same 60 D Street formula, this time with 18.5 as the value for Speed.
Darien’s G”1” to G”1” Fl G 2.5 sec at Eatons’ Neck         _________Minutes @ 18.5 kts.

4.  You are returning to the Five Mile River from Port Jefferson when the fog sets in at 1400.  You take the necessary precautions and turn your attention to plotting your current position.   Fortunately, you have been plotting your DR track, and have posted it on the chart.  When you consult your GPS and note the location that it reports, it is very close to your DR ... and since they are so very close, we will use the GPS position, which is:

                                    40° 58.90’ N                                    073° 21.60’ W

How far is it to Greens Ledge?  ______       At 6 knots, how many minutes to go? ____

What is the course (Magnetic) to Greens Ledge?  __________ 

How far is it to the nearest nav aid basically on your way to Greens Ledge? ________

How long will it take you, at 6 knots, to get to this aid? ________

Once at this aid, and the fog has closed in,  what is your next objective? _______

What is the distance to this next aid? _______  How long will it take to get there? _______

From this aid, how far to Greens Ledge?  ______    How long to get there? ________

By visiting these intermediate points, how much time have you added to your trip? ________

5.  You are just north of Lloyd Neck, your GPS tells you that you are at:
                                    40° 56.70’ N                                    073° 27.80’ W
There is a nun nearby.  Is this N2, N4 or N6? ________
You wish to go to R8 (Fl R 4s Bell) at Target Rock in Huntington Bay.  What compass course will you steer at this point so that you might get to R8?________ degrees Magnetic

6.  You are at G1 the mouth of Westcott Cove, East of Shippan Point - and are planning to go to Greens Ledge, which you can see very clearly today.  How far is it from you right now ______?  .  It is now 1000,  and at 10 knots, what time will you arrive? ________
What is the course to get there?  ________

The Voyage of the “Vivid Imagination

You have agreed to return the sailboat “Vivid Imagination” from Port Jefferson to it’s home port of Darien.  The owner, your friend, has been called away on business and could not bring the boat back herself.  The boat is in excellent condition, with a working radio, GPS, depth finder, and all of the standard equipment that is required.  If your friend had failed to provide the required equipment, say, proper flares, and you were then stopped by the Coast Guard for a safety inspection, who would be responsible for the infraction ?  _________

The new GPS is working, yet you have been warned that it has been “a little flaky.”  Will you post a DR track on the charts, just in case the GPS fails you on the trip?  ________

There was a thick fog yesterday, but today it is only hazy.  From the dock at Port Jeff you can just see the tower at the entrance (FL R 4  26ft “2A”)   How far away is it ? _________ (use the detail chart on the back of the main chart to answer this question).

Next, you lay out a course from RW “PJ” to the “11B” Gong near Cable and Anchor Reef.  Departing RW ”PJ” at 1300  with no breeze, you proceed under power, at 5 knots.  What is your computed ETA at the “11B” Gong north of Eatons Neck? __________ What time should you begin to look for the Gong, if you assume it will be visible at 2 miles? _______

After an hour on course, you plot your DR and then take a little nap, leaving the helm to the crew.  An hour later the crew wakes you, reporting the onset of thick fog.  They have put up the radar reflector, donned PFD’s and taken a quick fix from the GPS (although they did not get all the numbers, they jotted down 40-59 and 73-20 on the flap of Fig Newton box).  You quickly interpret this as a Lat/Long position and see that the plot is somewhat south of your intended course.  Your crackerjack crew reports:  “Rather than steering the course you had given us (288 Mag) we’ve been steering more towards Eaton’s Neck, and not paying too much attention until the fog started to come in.”  UH OH! The GPS has just gone on the blink and now shows all “9’s.”  O.K.  Your goal is still to get to “11B.”   You remember an excellent way to find it:  you notice that “11B” is on the 60’ depth contour line, so you decide to continue on the same course (288 Mag) until you hit the 60’ sounding line, and then turn to starboard and follow the 60’ line north to the “11B” Gong.   While running along the 60’ sounding line, when the soundings show more than 60’ you turn to __________

Having found “11B” you change course towards  “R28C.”  Immediately, you hear a major league, loud, and close “one long, two short” blasts forward and to starboard.  It sounds “larger than a sailboat.  What IS it? __________  What channel on the VHF do you use first to call this other vessel? __________   What do you say?__________

After your conversation with the other vessel you decide that you should slow down and turn to Starboard.  What do you ask the other vessel?  __________

Soon, this large noise maker is off your Port Beam, and then it is heard more and more astern.  What do you do now? __________

Eventually, as you arrive in the vicinity of the “R28C” Bell, you do not hear it.  What can you do to make the bell sound?_____________

The fog lifts, you see Long Neck Point. It’s a good thing to be home with Vivid Imagination !


2.2 Nautical Miles (NM)   R 28C – Cable & Anchor Reef
5.2 NM – G 15 North of Lloyd Point
4.2 NM – R32 South of Stamford – The Cows

41 degrees 03.0 minutes North     073 degrees  06.2 minutes West
40 degrees 55.5 minutes North     073 degrees  42.15 minutes West
41 degrees 06.2 minutes North     073 degrees  11.7 minutes West

1. 6.5 NM
2. 78 minutes       60 * 6.5   /   5   =  78
3. 21 minutes       60 * 6.5 /  18.5 =  21
4. 5.2 NM    52 MIN
     328 degrees Magnetic
     1.9 NM
     19 MIN
     Cable & Anchor Reef
     1.3 NM    13 MIN
     2.2 NM     22 MIN
     2 minutes
5. N4
     115 to clear N6, and then 145 to get to N8   - definitely NOT 133 which would take you into a dangerous area South of N6
6.  3.1 NM     1019      115 degrees Magnetic to Smith Reef, then 80 degrees Magnetic to Greens Ledge – do NOT take the straight line route

CHARTWORK # 2 – HOMEWORK # 2 – The Voyage of the “Vivid Imagination”
You are responsible
Yes – as always on a long trip
1.7 NM
1536     1512    60 * D = S* T      D = 13.0    S = 5   T = ?      T = 156 minutes            if D = 2, T = 24, so subtract 24 from 1536   =  1512
Port (left)
Tug & Barge   13 then 16     I am a sailboat near 11B – do you have me on your radar?
I have changed course to pass port-to-port, do you still see me on radar?
Resume course and speed – making adjustments in DR track
Make circle – create a wake – (if necessary shut engine off, ) and listen for wave to rock the bell

 1-A       2-D       3-B       4-B       5-C       6-B       7-B       8-B        9-A     10-B

 11-B     12-D     13-B     14-D     15-B     16-C     17-C     18-C     19-D     20-C

21-A     22-A     23-C     ((24-C))-not in 2012 edition

 1-A       2-B        3-B       4-A       5-C       6-C       7-B       8-C        9-C     10-B

11-C     12-B     13-A     14-B     15-B     16-C     17-C     18-C     19-C     20-C

21-C     22-A     23-D     24-C     25-B     26-D     27-D     28-C     29-C     30-C

((31-C)) -only in 2012 edition

 1-D       2-B        3-A       4-C       5-B       6-D       7-B       8-C        9-B     10-A

11-D     12-C     13-C     14-D     15-B     16-A     17-A     18-D     19-B     20-B

21-D     22-C     23-C     24-A     25-D     26-A     27-C     28-B     29-B     30-D

31-A     32-A     33-B 

 1-B       2-C        3-C       4-A       5-A       6-B       7-D       8-B        9-B     10-A

11-C     12-C     13-B     14-C     15-D     16-C     17-A     18-A     19-D     20-C

21-B     22-C     23-D     24-B     25-C     26-A     27-D     28-A     29-C     30-B

31-B     32-C     33-A